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ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Auto mobiles) has been the official successor organization of CCMC since 1/1/1996. It defines the quality of motor oils according to the requirements of European motor manufacturers.
An additive package is a mixture of various chemical materials that influence the properties of the motor oil in different ways.
The alkaline reserves of an oil neutralize acidic reaction products, which are created during the combustion of fuel.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) determines the global quality requirements and testing criteria for lubricants.
So-called Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) have a defined friction value and have a high viscosity index. The oils are mainly used in automatic transmissions and power steering.
The base number shows the quantity of alkaline reserves in motor oils. In used oils the base number gives an idea of the remaining additives that have not yet been used.
Base oil is the base product for the manufacture of lubricating oils. Base oils (mineral, hydrocracked or fully synthetic) are manufactured by various refinery processes.
During catalytic hydrocracking, in the presence of a catalytic converter (e.g. synthetic aluminosilicates), and at a temperature of 500 °C the molecule chains are broken.
In cracking, long hydrocarbon molecules are broken up. These broken molecule chains form the base product for synthetic oils. ´
Crude oil is a mixture mainly made up of hydrocarbons, which is created by the decomposition process of organic materials.
During distillation crude oil is heated under atmospheric pressure and disassembled into its natural components.
Detergents are wash-active substances that protect the motor against deposits. Also, detergents form the so-called alkaline reserves.
During dewaxing wax crystals are removed from the corresponding distillate, in order to improve the pour point (the lowest temperature in which the oil is still flowing, when it is cooled under certain conditions)
The dispersants contained in motor oil coat solid and liquid contamination in the oil and transport them to the oil filter.
Extreme Pressure additives (EP) form a "protective layer" on the metal surfaces under high pressure and great heat.
FULLY SYNTHETIC BASE OIL
Fully synthetic base oils are manufactured based on naphtha (petroleum). These oils have very good temperature and aging stability.
GL means "Gear Lubricant" and identifies the pressure stability of a gearbox oil according to API.
High Temperature High Shear (HTHS) is the dynamic viscosity of a liquid measured at 150 °C under the influence of high shear forces.
HYDROCRACKED BASE OIL
Hydrocracked base oils are manufactured based on paraffin. These oils are currently state-of-the-art and are also used in cutting edge petrol/diesel motors.
During hydrocracking, long molecule chains are broken up in the presence of hydrogen. This hydrogen stores itself in the open chain ends and "repairs" the breakage.
Hydrofinishing is the addition of hydrogen during the manufacturing of mineral base oil for ensuring optimum aging stability.
The Japanese Automotive Standards Organisation (JASO) divides lubricating oils into various classes and is mainly used in the motorbike sector or in Asia.
The pump limit temperature identifies the temperature up to which the motor oil can still flow to the oil pump by itself.
LOWER TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY
This is the temperature at which a vehicle that is in good technical condition can still be started. The cold start safety is at approx. 5 °C over the limit pump temperature.
MINERAL BASE OIL
Mineral base oils are a direct product of crude petroleum distillation. This type of base oil is no longer used in modern motors.
Naphta is petroleum, which represents a product of crude petroleum distillation.
Wax crystals that form the byproduct of the manufacture of mineral base oil are described as paraffin.
The pour point is the lowest temperature at which the oil just about flows when it is cooled down under certain conditions.
A Pour Point Depressant (PPD additive) changes the structure of the wax crystals in the base oil and delays their growth. This minimizes the solidification point of the oil or improves the low temperature property.
Refining is the removal/conversion of unwanted parts from vacuum distillation.
SAE International (formerly the Society of Automotive Engineers) specifies the valid viscosity classes for motor and gearbox oils in the automotive industry, which manufacturers around the world conform to.
In vacuum distillation objects are separated from distillation of the raffinate under a vacuum. With the vacuum the boiling point can be reduced by approx. 150 °C and therefore the cracking of the molecules is prevented.
The Viscosity index (VI) describes the viscosity/temperature behavior of the oil. The higher the VI, the lower the change in viscosity across the entire temperature range.
VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVERS
Viscosity index improvers are polymers that are constructed in such a way that they influence the temperature-dependent viscosity change of an oil.
Viscosity is the resistance (inner friction) of a fluid. The higher the resistance, the more viscous the oil is. The viscosity in motor and gearbox oils is given according to SAE.
Crude petroleum was created by dead plankton that sank to the bottom of the seabed millions of years ago. Over the course of time, sand and stones built up on top of it. Due to this impermeable layer and under oxygen exclusion, pressure and heat, the conversion of these "lifeforms" into crude petroleum took place. The basic building blocks of crude petroleum are hydrocarbon compounds, which can occur in various chain lengths (C5 - C100).
Base oils form the base product for the manufacturing of motor oils. The various base oils (mineral, hydrocracked or fully synthetic) are manufactured by various refinery processes (see sketch).
Mineral base oil is the simplest and oldest form of base oil. In manufacturing the already described crude oil serves as a direct base product. The crude oil is heated in a furnace and disassembled into its natural components (distilled). Then unwanted and damaging components are removed from the distillate by the refining process or by dewaxing. Thanks to the subsequent hydrofinishing, the raffinate specifically has hydrogen added to it, which closes the open molecule chains and therefore significantly increases the aging stability.
Fully synthetic base oil is mainly characterized by its very good thermal stability and cleaning performance. As high performance as it is, so laborious its manufacture also is. So-called naphtha (petrol without additives) serves as the base product. Naphta in cracked in the first step, which means that the molecule chains (C5 – C12) split open and are broken down to a length of C2 – C3. The former liquid is now gaseous. In the consequent synthesis process the short molecule chains (C2 – C3) are added to long molecule chains (C20 – C35) and sealed by adding hydrogen (hydrogenation).
Hydrocracked base oil combines the positive properties of mineral and fully synthetic base oils with one another. This base oil type offers a very good thermal stability and resistance to aging with simultaneously absolute material compatibility. The basis for hydrocracked base oils are formed by the paraffin taken from the mineral oil extraction. The paraffin is made up of long-chained molecule compounds (> C35). These are split open in the presence of a catalytic converter under a pressure of 70 - 200 bar and temperatures of up to 500 °C and shortened to a useful length of C20 – C35 (catalytic hydrocracking). The liquid in the vacuum is subsequently distilled, in order to avoid the cracking of the molecule chains. In the last step, any paraffin deposits are removed
In most cases the base oil alone is not sufficient to cover the many tasks that an oil has to fulfill in a motor, for example. For a reliable lubrication and seamless operation the base oils of additives are added. With the help of these additives, certain properties of the oil can be improved or completely new properties achieved. The list of the additives used for this is varied and long. The individual materials are, depending on the requirement, comprised in an additive package. This package added to the base oil heated from 40 °C to 60 °C and is stirred until it is completely dissolved in the oil. In modern motor oils the concentration of additives can be up to 30% or less than 1% in gearbox oils.
Fundamentally, you can differentiate between two types of additives:
■Additives that have an effect on the base oil, e.g. pour point improvers, anti-foam additives or viscosity index improvers.
■Additives that have an effect on the material surfaces (bearings, cylinders …), e.g. bonding enhancers or friction modifiers (friction value improvers).
Here is a list of the properties of an oil that can be influenced by additives:
Detergents are wash-active substances in the oil, which prevent the formation of deposits or free the motor of them. If these are used up by exceeded oil change intervals, for example, the result is the increased formation of deposits (see picture). This causes friction to measurably increase in the motor, risking motor damage.
Extreme Pressure Additives (EP additives) are added to the oil in the form of sulfur or phosphorous in order to prevent fusing due to high pressures or loads of the friction partners. In this case, EP additives in lubricants are indispensable. Under high pressures or loads, high temperatures are created in the lubricant. This causes sulfur (sulfur carriers) or a phosphorous derivative (compounds containing phosphorous) to be released from the EP additive. Under these conditions, the released substance immediately reacts with the metal surface to metal sulfides or phosphates. The connections form on the metal surface layers that are sheared off under the high pressure, with which a fusing of the metal surfaces is prevented.
The PPD additive is used to reduce the solidification point of the lubricant and therefore improve the low temperature properties. The wax crystals included in base oil are changed in their structure by the additive and their growth is significantly slowed down at low temperatures.
Viscosity index improvers are macromolecular polymers (combination of macromolecules) that are constructed in such a way that they influence the temperature-dependent viscosity change of an oil. The polymer contracts at low temperatures. This makes the resistance that the polymer opposes an invading body with smaller and the viscosity change of the base oil is equalized..
An unwanted byproduct of circulation lubrication is the inclusion of small air bubbles in the motor oil. Anti-foam additives cause a significant reduction of foam created in the circulation of oil (air pockets).
In order to select the correct motor oil, two pieces of information are required. Firstly, the viscosity, and, secondly, the quality is required. Numerous organizations have arisen over the past few decades for these classifications:
■SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)
■API (American Petrol Institute)
■ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles)
■ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee)
■JASO (Japanese Automotive Standards Organization)
The well-known European vehicle or motor manufacturers (Mercedes-Benz, BMW, VW …) conform to SAE for viscosity information and ACEA for quality information.
The motor oils to be used for import vehicles that were developed outside of Europe (Toyota, Mitsubishi, Chrysler ...) mainly conform to API or ILSAC and SAE.
The viscosity gives only information about the inner friction of a motor or gearbox oil and therefore does not define any kind of qualitative properties. This means that a motor oil that fulfills a viscosity as per SAE has a prescribed flow behavior at various temperatures. The viscosity is divided into the cold start range (e.g. 0W) and the operating temperature range (e.g. 30). The higher the given figure, the more viscous the motor/gearbox oil is in the corresponding temperature range. The letter "W" identifies the winter suitability of the oil (multi-grade oil). If this addition is missing, then the oil may only be used in summer.
Up to which low temperature a motor/gearbox oil can be used depends on the flowability in the limit temperature range. The deeper the expected temperature, the less viscous the oil has to be.
The American Petrol Institute fundamentally differentiates between two different types of motor oil: On the one hand, motor oils for gasoline motors (S), on the other, motor oils for diesel motors (C). The letter following the first letter, e.g. "G" or "H", defines the quality of the lubricant. The later in the alphabet this letter is, the higher quality the motor oil is. The higher classifications such as API SN can be used by API for the preceding classifications without hesitation, e.g. API SL. For motor oils for diesel motors a "4" can additionally be displayed. This addition identifies the suitability for large motors such as trucks or buses (heavy duty).
The Association des Constructeurs Européens d`Automobiles forms the oil standard for European vehicle or motor manufacturers. Here – as with API – oils for petrol motors (A) and light diesel motors (B) are differentiated. Unlike with the API, at the ACEA every category has its own meaning and cannot be used backwards compatibly.
5.3.1 Car petrol and diesel motors
|A1/B1||High-performance motor oil for petrol and diesel motors, so-called fuel economy motor oils with particularly low High Temperature High Shear viscosity (2,9 - 3,5 mPA*s). Reserved for viscosity class xW-20. Invalid since 12/2016.|
|A3/B4|| ||High-performance motor oil for petrol and diesel motors, extends and replaces conventional motor oils like ACEA A2/B2 and A3/B3 and can be used for extended change intervals.|
|A5/B5||High-performance motor oil for petrol and diesel motors, so-called fuel economy motor oils with particularly low High Temperature High Shear viscosity (2,9 - 3,5 mPa*s). Reserved for viscosity classes are xW-30 and xW-40.|
5.3.2 Car diesel motors with diesel particulate filters
|C1||Category for low SAPS oil with reduced HTHS viscosity ≥ 2.9 mPa*s, low viscosity, performance as with A5/B5, but with very limited proportions of sulfate ash, phosphorous, sulfur.|
|C2||Category for low SAPS oil with reduced HTHS viscosity ≥ 2.9 mPa*s, low viscosity, performance as with A5/B5, with limited, but higher proportions of sulfate ash, phosphorous, sulfur compared to C1.|
|C3|| ||Category for low SAPS oil with high HTHS viscosity ≥ 3.5 mPa*s, low viscosity, performance as with A3/B4, with limited, but higher proportions of sulfate ash, phosphorous, sulfur compared to C1.|
|C4||Category for low SAPS oil with high HTHS viscosity ≥ 3.5 mPa*s, low viscosity, performance as with A3/B4, with the same proportions of sulfate ash and sulfur, but increased proportion compared to C1.|
|C5||C5 category for mid-SAPS oil with reduced HTHS 2.6 – 2.9 mPas*s, low viscosity, for even more improved and optimum fuel savings, for vehicles with state-of-the-art exhaust aftertreatment systems, only for engines meeting the corresponding technical requirements.|
5.3.3 Commercial vehicle diesel motors
|E1||Category not up to date.|
|E2||Category not up to date.|
|E3|| ||Category is included in ACEA E7.|
|E4||Based on MB 228.5, extended oil change possible, suitable for Euro 3 motors.|
|E5||Category is included in ACEA E7.|
|E6||Category for EGR motors with/without diesel particulate filters (DPF) and SCR-NOX motors. Recommended for motors with diesel particulate filters combined with sulfur-free fuel. Sulfate ash content max. 1%.|
|E7||Category for motors without diesel particulate filters (DPF) of the most EGR motors and the most SCR-NOX motors. Sulfate ash content max. 2 %.|
|E9||Category for motors with/without diesel particulate filters (DPF) of the most EGR motors and the most SCR-NOX motors. Recommended for motors with diesel particulate filters combined with sulfur-free fuel. Sulfate ash content max. 1%.|
The International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee is very strongly based on the categories according to API in its classification of motor oils. There are five classification categories for petrol motors, but none for diesel motors.
|GF-1||introduction year 1996, comparable with API SH, category not up to date|
|GF-2||introduction year 1997, comparable with API SJ|
|GF-3|| ||introduction year 2001, comparable with API SL|
|GF-4||introduction year 2004, comparable with API SM|
|GF-5||introduction year 2010, comparable with API SN|
The Japanese Automobile Standard Organisation sets out the criteria for two-wheel oils. Here increased requirements of friction behavior (wet clutches), shear stability and burning behavior are set out. The JASO and API classifications are always occur together in the two-wheel sector.
|MA||4-stroke motors – high friction value for motorbikes with wet clutches|
|MA 2||4-stroke motors – high friction value for motorbikes with wet clutches|
|MB|| ||4-stroke motors – low friction value for motorbikes without wet clutches|
|FB||2-stroke motors – low cleaning, incomplete combustion|
|FC||2-stroke motors – high cleaning, almost complete combustion|
|FD||2-stroke motors – highest cleaning, complete combustion|
Based on European vehicle manufacturers, the prescribed vehicle specifications are based on the motor tests of the ACEA. In order to achieve a manufacturer approval for a certain oil, in addition to the respective ACEA test procedure, further motor tests and requirements must be fulfilled. An overview of which manufacturer specification is based on which ACEA classification can be seen here:
Approvals for BMW motors
|Longlife-98||Based on ACEA A3/B3, can be used from model year ′98, is replaced by Longlife-01|
|Longlife-01||Based on ACEA A3/B4, can be used from model year ′01, is replaced by Longlife-04|
|Longlife-04|| ||Based on ACEA C3, can be used from model year ′04|
|Longlife-12 FE||Based on ACEA C2, can be used from model year ′13, reduced HTHS viscosity, not backward compatible|
|Longlife-14 FE+||Based on ACEA A1/B1, can be used from model year ′14, reduced HTHS viscosity, not backward compatible|
Approvals for Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia motors
|9.55535-CR1||Based on ILSAC GF-5 or API SN, viscosity class 5W-20|
|9.55535-DS1||Based on ACEA C2, viscosity class 0W-30|
|9.55535-G1|| ||Based on ACEA A1 or A5, viscosity class 5W-30, special development for CNG motors|
|9.55535-G2||Based on ACEA A3, viscosity classes 10W-40 and 15W-40, can be used in older gasoline motors|
|9.55535-GH2||Based on ACEA C3, viscosity class 5W-40, special development for "1750 turbo motor"|
|9.55535-GS1||Based on ACEA C2, viscosity class 0W-30, special development for 0.9 Twin Air (turbo) motor|
|9.55535-H2||Based on ACEA A3, viscosity class 5W-40, suitable for extended change intervals|
|9.55535-M2||Based on ACEA A3/B4, viscosity classes 0W/5W-40, suitable for extended change intervals|
|9.55535-N2||Based on ACEA A3/B4, viscosity class 5W-40, suitable for gasoline and diesel turbo motors|
|9.55535-S1||Based on ACEA C2, viscosity class 5W-30, suitable for gasoline and diesel turbo motors with WIV|
|9.55535-S2||Based on ACEA C3, viscosity class 5W-40, suitable for gasoline and diesel motors with WIV|
|9.55535-S3||Based on ACEA C3, viscosity class 5W-30, special development for Chrysler, Jeep and Lancia|
|9.55535-T2||Based on ACEA C3, viscosity class 5W-40, special development for gas motors|
|9.55535-Z2||Based on A3/B4, viscosity class 5W-40, special development for twin turbo diesel motors|
Approvals for FORD motors
|WSS-M2C-913-A||Based on ACEA A1/B1|
|WSS-M2C-913-B||Based on ACEA A1/B1, backwards compatible with WSS-M2C-913-A|
|WSS-M2C-913-C|| ||Based on ACEA A5/B5, backwards compatible with WSS-M2C-913-B|
|WSS-M2C-913-D||Based on ACEA A5/B5, replaces WSS-M2C-913-A, B and C|
|WSS-M2C-925-B||Based on API SM, backwards compatible with WSS-M2C-925-B, is replaced by WSS-M2C-948-B|
|WSS-M2C-917-A||Based on ACEA A3/B4, counterpart to VW 505.01|
|WSS-M2C-934-B||Based on ACEA C1, viscosity class 5W-30|
|WSS-M2C-948-B ||Based on API SN, specially developed for Ford EcoBoost motors|
|WSS-M2C-950-A||Based on ACEA C2, specially developed for Euro 6 TDCi-engines, viscosity class 0W-30|
Approvals for Mercedes-Benz motors
|MB-Freigabe 229.1||For all cars up to 03/2002, is replaced by MB 229.3|
|MB-Freigabe 229.3||For intervals up to 30,000 km, is replaced by MB 229.5|
|MB-Freigabe 229.5|| ||Stricter requirements than with 229.3, intervals up to 40,000 km possible|
|MB-Freigabe 229.31||Requirements as with 229.3 but low-ash, is replaced by MB 229.51|
|MB-Freigabe 229.51||Requirements as with 229.5 but low-ash, is replaced by MB 229.52|
|MB-Freigabe 229.52||Increased requirements of oxidation stability and fuel saving|
|MB-Freigabe 226.5||Based on Renault RN0700|
|MB-Freigabe 226.51||Based on Renault RN0720|
|Based on ACEA A5/B5, not backward compatible|
Based on ACEA C5, not backward compatible
Approvals for OPEL motors
|GM LL-A-025||Based on ACEA A3/B3, specification for petrol motors, is replaced by GM Dexos 2|
|GM LL-B-025||Based on ACEA A3/B4, specification for diesel motors, is replaced by GM Dexos 2|
|GM Dexos 2|| ||Based on ACEA C3, applicable for all motors from model year ′10|
Approvals for Peugeot motors
|PSA B71 2290||Based on ACEA C3 with viscosity class 5W-30|
|PSA B71 2295||Based on ACEA A2/B2 for motors before model year 1998, no defined viscosity|
|PSA B71 2296|| ||Based on ACEA A3/B4 with viscosity classes 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-30 and 5W-40|
|PSA B71 2300||Based on ACEA A3/B4 with viscosity class xW-40, xW-50|
|PSA B71 2312||Based on ACEA C2 with viscosity class 0W-30|
Approvals for PORSCHE motors
|A 40||Based on ACEA A3 with viscosity classes 0W-40 and 5W-40, for petrol motors from 1994|
|C 20||Based on ACEA C5, corresponds to VW 508.00/509.00, not backward compatible|
|C 30||Based on ACEA C3, corresponds to VW 504.00/507.00|
Approvals for RENAULT motors
|RN 0700||Based on ACEA A3/B4, permitted for all Renault petrol motors|
|RN 0710||Based on ACEA A3/B4, permitted for all Renault diesel motors without a particulate filters|
|RN 0720||Based on ACEA C4, permitted for all Renault diesel motors with particulate filters|
Approvals for VW motors
|VW 500.00||Multi-grade oil with viscosity classes SAE 5W-X/10W-X, is replaced by VW 501.01|
|VW 501.01||Multi-grade oil with viscosity classes SAE 5W-X/10W-X, is replaced by VW 502.00|
|VW 502.00||Multi-grade oil for higher requirements|
|VW 503.00||Longlife specification for petrol motors, based on ACEA A1, viscosity classes 0W-30/5W-30|
|VW 503.01||Longlife specification for supercharged petrol motors, viscosity class 5W-30|
|VW 505.00||Multi-grade oil for vacuum and turbo diesel motors|
|VW 505.01||Multi-grade oil for unit injector motors, based on ACEA B4, viscosity class 5W-40|
|VW 506.00||Longlife specification for supercharged diesel motors, viscosity class 0W-30|
|VW 506.01||Longlife specification for unit injector motors|
|VW 504.00||Specification for petrol motors with and without Longlife service, replaces all petrol specifications listed above|
|VW 507.00||Specification for diesel motors with and without Longlife service, replaces all diesel specifications listed above (Except for R5 and V10 TDI motors before CW 22/06)|
|VW 508.00||Longlife IV-specification for petrol motors with and without Longlife service, is not backward compatible, viscosity class SAE 0W-20|
|VW 509.00||Longlife IV-specification for diesel motors with and without Longlife service, is not backward compatible, viscosity class SAE 0W-20|
Based on European vehicle manufacturers, the prescribed vehicle specifications are based on the motor tests of the ACEA or the API. In order to achieve a manufacturer approval for a certain oil, in addition to the respective ACEA/API test procedure, further motor tests and requirements must be fulfilled. An overview of which manufacturer specification is based on which ACEA/API classification is shown in the illustration below.
Approvals for MAN motors
|M3275||SHPD motor oil, change interval of up to 60,000 km possible|
|M3277||UHPD motor oil, change interval of up to 80,000 km possible|
|M3377||Higher requirements of cleanliness/deposits than M3277, change interval according to display|
|M3477||Same as M3277 but low-ash for Euro 5 motors with DPF|
|M3677||Euro 6 motors with DPF, change interval up to 120,000 km possible|
Approvals for RENAULT motors
|RD/RD-2||Based on ACEA E3 + Volvo VDS-2|
|RLD/RLD-2||Based on ACEA E7 + Volvo VDS-3|
|RLD-3||Based on ACEA E9 + Volvo VDS-4|
|RXD||Based on ACEA E7 + Volvo VDS-3|
|RGD (Gas)||Based on ACEA E6 + Volvo VDS-3 + TBN >8|
Approvals for SCANIA motors
|Scania LDF||Based on ACEA E5|
|Scania LDF-2||Based on ACEA E7 applicable from Euro 4|
|Scania LDF-3||Based on ACEA E7 applicable from Euro 6|
|Scania Low Ash||Basis ACEA E6/E9 (low-ash)|
Approvals for IVECO motors
|18-1804 FE||Based on ACEA E4/E5 with TBN content >14|
|18-1804 TLS E6||Based on ACEA E6 with TBN content >13|
|18-1804 T2 E7||Based on ACEA E7 with TBN content >14|
|18-1804 TLS E9||Based on ACEA E9 or API CJ-4|
|18-1804 TFE||Based on ACEA E4/E7 with TBN content >16|
Approvals for VOLVO motors
|Volvo VDS||Based on API CD/CE, maintenance intervals up to 50,000 km possible|
|Volvo VDS-II||Based on ACEA E7, maintenance intervals up to 60,000 km possible|
|Volvo VDS-III||Based on ACEA E5, maintenance intervals up to 100,000 km possible|
|Volvo VDS-IV||Based on API CJ-4, short-distance, low-ash|
In motorbike motors the manufacturers largely forgo their own oil specifications and use the API or JASO determined motor tests for determining oil quality. In addition to determining the oil quality, for motorbikes that are equipped with clutches running in oil baths (wet clutch), higher requirements of shear stability, burning behavior and, above all, friction behavior have to be fulfilled. Whether an oil fulfills these properties can be found out via the JASO specification, which has to be listed under the approvals.
Approvals for motorbike motors by JASO
|JASO MA(2)||4-stroke motors – high friction value for motorbikes with wet clutches|
|JASO MB||4-stroke motors – low friction value for motorbikes without wet clutches|
|JASO FB||2-stroke motors – low cleaning, incomplete combustion|
|JASO FC||2-stroke motors – high cleaning, almost complete combustion|
|JASO FD||2-stroke motors – highest cleaning, complete combustion|
In order to be able to ensure a malfunction-free operation, modern gearboxes require a modern high-performance lubricant, which protects the gearbox against friction and, at the same time, does not affect the shifting characteristics. The type and quantity of additives in the lubricant has a significant influence on various parameters, such as the shifting capacity, the change interval, the friction behavior and the wear protection. It is therefore urgently necessary that the classifications or approvals given by the manufacturer are upheld upon changing the gearbox oil. There are as many gearbox oils as there are types of gearbox. They are first roughly differentiated by manual gearbox or axle drive, automatic gearbox and dual-clutch gearbox. Within these upper groups there are various subgroups, which each need a special lubricant aligned to the construction type and purpose of use. In gearbox oils there is no uniform basis that the manufacturers are obliged to uphold (e.g. ACEA). This leads to a variety of special manufacturer approvals.
24 ATF approvals (MB approval 236.x)
21 (Hypoid) gearbox oil approvals (MB approval 235.x)
14 ATF approvals (G 052 xxx, G055 xxx, G060 xxx)
15 (Hypoid) gearbox oil approvals (G 052 xxx, G055 xxx, G060 xxx)
In order to at least be able to get a general answer as to what quality or which properties a gearbox oil corresponds to, over the course of the past few decades, division into by API for manual gearbox and axle drives and by Dexron for automatic gearboxes. The manufacturers made use of this division over a long period of time. After the gearbox became ever more complex, however, this division was no longer sufficient. The viscosity of the manual gearbox and axle drive is – as with motor oils – classified by SAE. The viscosity of automatic gearbox oils, so-called ATF oils (Automatic Transmission Fluid), is not classified by SAE, as the viscosity is a part of the respective manufacturer approval.
9.1.1 API (manual gearbox or axle drive oils)
|low load hypoid or worm gearbox|
0 % additives
|Worm gearbox (not in road vehicles)|
up to 1.5 % additives
|GL 3||Manual gearbox (vintage)||up to 2.7 % additives|
|GL 4||Manual gearbox, hypoid gearbox if permitted||up to 4 % additives|
|GL 5||Hypoid gearbox, manual gearbox if permitted||up to 6.5 % additives|
9.1.2 GM Dexron (automatic gearbox)